UC Berkeley Press Release

Dorsal Premotor Cortex Exerts State-Dependent Causal Influences on Activity in Contralateral Primary Motor and Dorsal Premotor Cortex

Sven Bestmann 1,2,3 , Orlando Swayne 2 , Felix Blankenburg 1 , Christian C. Ruff 1,3 , Patrick Haggard 3 , Nikolaus Weiskopf 1 , Oliver Josephs 1 , Jon Driver 1,3 , John C. Rothwell 2 and Nick S. Ward 1,4

1 Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at UCL, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK, 2 Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK, 3 UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University College London, London, UK, 4 Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK

Address correspondence to Sven Bestmann. Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at UCL, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, WC1N 3BG, London, UK.Email: s.bestmann@fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk


Cerebral Cortex Advance Access first published online on October 26, 2007
This version published online on November 17, 2007

Cerebral Cortex, doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm159

© 2007 The Authors
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

During voluntary action, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) may exert influences on motor regions in both hemispheres, but such interregional interactions are not well understood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) concurrently with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study such interactions directly. We tested whether causal influences from left PMd upon contralateral (right) motor areas depend on the current state of the motor system, involving regions engaged in a current task. We applied short bursts (360 ms) of high- or low-intensity TMS to left PMd during single isometric left-hand grips or during rest. TMS to left PMd affected activity in contralateral right PMd and primary motor cortex (M1) in a state-dependent manner. During active left-hand grip, high (vs. low)-intensity TMS led to activity increases in contralateral right PMd and M1, whereas activity decreases there due to TMS were observed during no-grip rest. Analyses of condition-dependent functional coupling confirmed topographically specific stronger coupling between left PMd and right PMd (and right M1), when high-intensity TMS was applied to left PMd during left-hand grip. We conclude that left PMd can exert state-dependent interhemispheric influences on contralateral cortical motor areas relevant for a current motor task.

Key Words: concurrent TMS-fMRI • effective connectivity • grip force • motor preparation • transcallosal inhibition


O cortex premotor dorsal exerce influências causais estado-dependentes na atividade do cortex premotor dorsal contralateral

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